Ethiopia

L3 Emergency

Coordination mechanism: Cluster
Year of activation: 2000
NCC: UNICEF P5, FT
Deputy: UNICEF NOC, FT
The subnational cluster has been activated in Tigray since the beginning of the year with P4 Cluster Coordinator, and P3 Information manager officer. Under the subnational also additional cluster has been established which is led by P3 (doble hatting in Somali region)
Coordination arrangements: The Emergency Nutrition Coordination Unit (ENCU) is a Government unit supported by UNICEF and housed within the National Disaster Risk Management Commission (NDRMC). It leads cluster coordination in addition to being the technical emergency nutrition arm of the Government of Ethiopia (GoE). As such, the ENCU leads and coordinates nutrition partners at federal, regional and district levels for a coherent, effective emergency nutrition preparedness and response to save lives and improve the nutritional status of vulnerable populations during emergencies. Additionally, the ENCU leads the multi-sectoral hotspot classification and conducts nutrition specific response gap analysis, bi-annual nutrition emergency response planning in addition to providing strategic guidance to new stakeholders. There are sub-national ENCU coordination staff in 6 Regions of Ethiopia including Tigray.

Country Key Contacts

Ines Lezama

Nutrition Cluster Coordinator/ENCU Team Leader ilezama@unicef.org

Wondayferam Gemeda

Deputy Team Leader wgemeda@unicef.org

Loai Sivas

IMO encu.addis@gmail.com

Key Content

Highlights from Ethiopia

GNC July Newsletter

The July newsletter is out! Summer is starting to wind down, but our nutrition efforts never do. In this edition, we share news, team member spotlights, updated resources, and an Advocacy Focus country – where we share our response and the joint efforts w..

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Mid-year 2022

January to June 2022

Situation Analysis

From the end of 2021 and in 2022, situation assessments are being carried out using different methodologies. The main information obtained from the Find and Treat campaign in the form of a prevalence GAM proxy based on the MUAC measure in children under 5 and pregnant and lactating women is used to analyze the situation in the most affected areas in 6 regions (458 woredas). From the data that it is available we can state that the nutritional status of children under five and pregnant and lactating women is quite fragile.

In addition, some survey data and results are available from selected woredas and rapid need assessments in areas affected by population displacement in both conflict and drought-affected areas. In Ethiopia, information is also triangulated with other available context and response data. Tracking admissions and trends of severe acute malnutrition cases and their severity is key to analyze response capacity but also to indicate increased needs and severity if the number of cases with medical complications is high, etc.

  • 100% of the woredas (campaign conducted) in Somali region, and 89% in Oromia region, showed a high prevalence of global proxy acute malnutrition > 15%.
  • From January to June, there has been an increase of 30% in the number of SAM cases admitted to therapeutic feeding centers compared to last year same period. The increase was more pronounced in drought affected zones of Oromia region, SNNP Somali and Afar where an increase of 61%, 51%, 36% and 35% reported respectively. Besides conflict affected regions of Tigray and Amhara also showed a significant increase which is 118% and 74% respectively. Besides SAM admissions with medical complications significantly increased in drought affected zones of Oromia by 78%, in Afar region by 257% and Somali region by 58%. The increase is anticipated to continue in the coming 2 to 3 months which are lean season for most of drought affected areas.

Factors contributing to a high number of cases of acute malnutrition and death include overburdened health facilities, lack of sanitation and safe drinking water, limited content and frequency of food aid and the upsurge of measles and other communicable diseases due to cross-border mobilities.

 

Response

In summary, overall country wide, from January to June 2022:

A total of 324,461 children with severe acute malnutrition are admitted to therapeutic feeding programme units. This makes 40 percent of the HRP target for the year for severe acute malnutrition cases management. The number of health facilities reporting activity for SAM care, in June was of 19,614. This figure changes depending on the region.

Besides more than 1.6 million children with moderate acute malnutrition and pregnant and lactating women malnourished have been assisted translated to 49.5 percent of the HRP target for moderate acute malnutrition treatment has been accomplished.

Overall, the cluster achievement for the semester is 43.6 percent.

Challenges

  •  Scarce resources for a scaled-up nutrition response (including extension of partners)
  • Shortage of specialized food products for prevention and treatment of acute malnutrition. Especially given the high number of beneficiaries in need, commodities for moderate acute malnutrition treatment remained a big challenge.
  • Inaccessibility and insecurity in conflict affected areas hampered humanitarian response and discontinuity of access to health services recurrent in some areas.
  • Delay in endorsement of simplified protocols from Ministry of Health limited its use in extraordinary situations where the standard protocol cannot be used.
  • Limited coverage of key preventive interventions and response for pregnant and lactating women
  • Inadequate food aid response resulting in high number of cases of acute malnutrition
  • Huge gaps in coverage of access to water
  • Availability of livestock vaccines and drugs
  • Upsurge of measles and other communicable diseases due to cross-border mobilities
  • Limited availability of sufficient quality timely key data for and anticipatory decision making
Intersectoral collaboration

In Somali and Oromia (western part) the drought is increasing the burden and the severity of cases of malnutrition in children and pregnant and lactating women. Furthermore, outbreaks spikes, and mobility context are increasing risk for the most vulnerable. During the months of July and August it is expected the number of malnutrition cases to rise.

The burden of cases of acute malnutrition as well as the increased risk of death are accentuated when the risk and cases of disease increase, when services are not accessible and/or are saturated, when there is no access to safe water and sanitation is not it is appropriate.  Furthermore, if food is not available, if the content of food aid is insufficient, families do not produce, they have lost their livestock, there is not enough milk and livelihoods are lost, the nutritional status -already weakened- of the youngest children and of pregnant and lactating women is severely affected. Without a holistic response and intersectoral collaboration it will not be possible to reduce the severity of the cases.

Nutrition cluster as well as WASH, Food, Health and Agriculture cluster are reinforcing the intersectoral collaboration for a more effective and holistic package of interventions and modalities of joint response in drought affected areas.

Advocacy, Intersectoral Collaboration and Preparedness
Advocacy Survey
Country Advocacy Strategy developed Yes
Link to document Link
Advocacy activities included in annual work plan Yes
Specific WG leading advocacy work established No
Preparedness
Contingency plan or ERP plan developed/updated No
Link to document  
Intersectoral Collaboration (ISC)
Intersectoral projects currently under implementation Yes
Clusters engaged
In Somali and Oromia (western part) the drought is increasing the burden and the severity of cases of malnutrition in children and pregnant and lactating women. Furthermore, outbreaks spikes, and mobility context are increasing risk for the most vulnerable. During the months of July and August it is expected the number of malnutrition cases to rise.

The burden of cases of acute malnutrition as well as the increased risk of death are accentuated when the risk and cases of disease increase, when services are not accessible and/or are saturated, when there is no access to safe water and sanitation is not it is appropriate.  Furthermore, if food is not available, if the content of food aid is insufficient, families do not produce, they have lost their livestock, there is not enough milk and livelihoods are lost, the nutritional status -already weakened- of the youngest children and of pregnant and lactating women is severely affected. Without a holistic response and intersectoral collaboration it will not be possible to reduce the severity of the cases.

Nutrition cluster as well as WASH, Food, Health and Agriculture cluster are reinforcing the intersectoral collaboration for a more effective and holistic package of interventions and modalities of joint response in drought affected areas.

In the past, cross-sectoral collaboration efforts have focused on developing advocacy or policy documents, in addition to applying for funding (EHF) to promote multi-sectorality. Unfortunately the scale of these experiences does not allow for evidence of impact.

In Ethiopia there are many partners applying the multi-sectoral approach, but more lessons learned and analysis from the interclusters are needed. 5 clusters (Agriculture, Food, Health, Nutrition and WASH) are developing a road map for ISC in Ethiopia mainly in drought affected areas.

Key Figures

(million)

Funding

(million)
Number of SAM under-five children in need
(million)
Number of MAM under-five children in need
(million)
Number of children 6-23 months in need of BSFP- Blanket Supplementary Feeding Programme 2021
(million)
Number of children 6-59 months in need of Micronutrient Powder Supplementation
(million)
Number of children 6-59 months in need of Vitamin A Supplementation
(million)
Number of PLW counselled (one-on-one) on IYCF
(million)
Number of moderately acutely malnourished PLW in need
(million)
Number of moderately acutely malnourished PLW in need Of BSFP
(million)
Number of PW in need of iron/folate supplementation
(million)

39

Total Partners

0
NNGOs
0
INGOs
0
UN agencies
0
Authorities
0
Donors

Nutrition Cluster Key resources

list of important documents

Ethiopia National Guideline for Management of Acute Malnutrition May 2019

The Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) developed the first Protocol for the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in 2007, and the Guideline for the Management of Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) in 2012. This National Guideline for the Management of Acute Malnutrition in Ethiopia replaces...

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